Skip to main content

FOXP2: The grammar gene.





Is there a grammar/language gene? This is an interesting question that linguistics finally started to tap into. While the correlation between our genes and our physical traits such as height, skin, eye color, etc. is very clearly undeniable and easy to understand, the correlation between genes and language is a little less obvious and disturbing. There is, in fact, tangible evidence in favor of the gene-language correlation that hints to the fact that such correlation may exist. 

Now what is this evidence and what do studies actually show? A team of British scientists, led by Simon Fisher, could isolate a gene that is believed to be involved in the development of speech and language. This gene, dubbed FOXP2, was found to cause serious language breakdowns when mutated.  We do have a case for this mutation in a British family called KE that suffers from an inherited language disorder that is believed to be attributed to the FOXP2 gene. The disorder is characterized by unintelligible speech, difficulty reproducing sounds in the right sequence, and difficulty producing multi-syllabic words such as "hippopotamus".  (Read more about the KE family [here])

Another piece of evidence is put forth by MIT psychologist and best-selling author of The Language Instinct Steven Pinker.  Pinker discusses a study by Gopnik of Specific Language Impairment. The study showcased family members with a syntax-related disorder. The disorder involved an impairment of the grammatical competence of affected family members, specifically the morphological component. Interestingly enough, this impairment left other cognitive domains unimpacted. One subject who has been studied by Gopnik did above average in math tests, but would often leave off the -ed and -s tense affixes, say things like Carol is cry in the church and would fail to deduce the plural of  wug.
                        



Based on these finding, researchers postulated the likelihood of the existence of a grammar gene (i.e. FOXP2). These findings took media by storm. Different news channels each made their own interpretation of these studies. The Associated Press, for example, wrote that "the ability to learn grammar laid to gene by researcher." Bombeck went even further to unwittingly write "Poor Grammar? It are in the gene." This is not the intent of what studies have shown, though. This is a prime example of how scientific discoveries get addled by journalists working under deadline pressure. 

Other researchers, though, do not buy into the premise. Vargha-Khadem, for one, does not believe it is accurate to call FOXP2 a language gene. Monaco, another opponent of the so-called grammar gene, writes that "the only thing we can say for certain is that one copy of this gene is disrupted, and the result is a speech and language disorder. What it means beyond that requires further investigation." 

What we do know for sure is that genes do affect language. That's the only thing we know. It is still too early to claim that there is a specific language gene that is directly related to language. These studies and others tapped into an interesting area in linguistics and opened up very potential research avenues and we expect to see some breakthroughs in language genetics in the future.
                      


There is no mode of action, no form of emotion, that we do not share with the lower animals. It is only by language that we rise above them…
_Oscar Wilde.



References:

https://www.nature.com/articles/347026a0
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2008/08/15/the-foxp2-story-in-new-scientist/
Steven Pinker The Language Instinct.
Feature-blind grammar and dysphagia. Gopnik M. Nature. 1990 Apr 19; 344(6268):715.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

What linguists know that other people don't.

Studying languages is a privilege. When you analyze language and everyday speech you realize that there is an astonishing amount of wonder in this system that we take for granted. Linguists questioned the obvious, which is language, and got answers that forever changed mankind’s understanding of Language and human nature. In this article, you will see what linguists know that is not so evident to other people. So let's see what we've got. We all speak one language. One of the main discoveries of modern linguistics is that it made us aware that all the languages we speak are similar in astonishing respects; they manifest the same pattern, follow the same rules, they are learnt in exactly the same way, and that all the differences are only superficial. So, in a sense we all speak the same language. This was captured by Chomsky in an excellent metaphor in an excellent book of his titled Language and Mind in which he says that if a Martian scientist, somebody with a different kind…

What can you do with a degree in linguistics?

People so often assume that a linguist's job is to learn as many languages as possible, when in actuality it is not anything near that. So, let us put an end to this erroneous assumption once and for all. 
Linguists do not engage in learning languages, linguists engage in studying how language works. And when I say language, I mean human language, an umbrella term that subsumes all languages spoken by humans, including pidgins, creoles, and sign languages. Thanks to linguists the world is a better place now, many daunting problems that existed for centuries have been solved because now we have a better understanding of language and language-related issues. in this article, you will see, in full-length, the contributions of linguists to the modern world. And you are going to see that it's a disgrace to confine a linguist's job to just learning languages. 
Let me just give you some examples before we break things down in more detail. A linguist's job could involve explo…

8 books everyone into linguistics should read.

When you want to decide on what to read in language and linguistics, it is never easy to pick a reading list; there is just so many books out there under the label of linguistics, especially that publications in linguistics have been growing like wild fire in the last couple of decades. So with your limited time and the unlimited number of books, it is always wise to make some research beforehand on what exactly you want to read. There is a lot to choose from, and the best book will depend on what you are specifically interested in. This is why we, at The Language Nerds, compiled a list of linguistics books that will entertain the novice and the expert alike. Here are some places to start: 


1.The Language Instinct by Steven Pinker


This is a book for the general science readers, it is very accessible whether you have a background in linguistics or not. It is considered by many as a landmark in linguistics. It is a great introduction and primer to some of the more basic problems and que…